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Global MPI 2021 Country Briefing

Joined MPPN: 2016


National MPI

Multidimensional Poor (based on National MPI): 42.1%
Launch date of national MPI: 2022
Institution responsible for national MPI:Uganda Bureau of Statistics (UBOS)
Dimensions of national MPI: Education, Health, Living Standards, Employment and Financial Inclusion
Source: Uganda National Household Survey (UNHS)

The Uganda Bureau of Statistics (UBOS) released the first Multidimensional Poverty Index (MPI) report for Uganda. The sources of data for the MPI report was the 2016/17 and 2019/20 Uganda National Household Surveys. The approach used is based on the Alkire-Foster method developed by Sabina Alkire and James Foster from the Oxford Poverty and Human Development Initiative (OPHI) at the University of Oxford and adapted to Uganda’s context.

The overarching objective for this report was to estimate the national Multidimensional Poverty Index (MPI) for Uganda, which will be a benchmark for tracking progress in multiple deprivations that Ugandans face in the coming years, in line with Sustainable Development Goal (SDG) 1: End poverty in all its forms everywhere.

It represents concerted efforts to complement income poverty measures and deepen the understanding of poverty in a multifaceted way. The thrust to achieve SDG 1 calls for an integrated, holistic analysis of the multidimensional aspects of poverty.

The Uganda MPI use four dimensions: Education, Health, Living Standards, Employment and Financial Inclusion, which all together have a total of 12 indicators.

Uganda MPI

Uganda MPI Dimensions and Indicators


At the national level, the incidence of multidimensional poverty (the percentage of people who are multidimensional poor or the poverty rate or headcount ratio) was estimated at 42.1 percent. The average intensity of poverty (the average percentage of dimensions in which poor people are deprived, or the average deprivation score of poor persons) was estimated at 54.5 percent, implying that on average, the poor are deprived in 2.2 dimensions.

The MPI measure, which quantifies the weighted average number of deprivations (as a proportion of the maximum number of possible deprivations) was estimated at 0.23 in 2019/20. The rural multidimensional headcount ratio and MPI were estimated at 50.2 percent and 0.78 respectively, which is approximately three times larger than that of urban areas (19.7 percent and 0.108 respectively). However, the intensity (or breadth) of poverty in rural and urban areas is relatively the same.

At the regional level, multidimensional poverty is highest in the Northern region (63 percent), followed by the Eastern region (45.7 percent). A similar trend emerges for the intensity as well as the MPI. At the sub-regional level, Karamoja has the highest levels of multidimensional poverty, poverty intensity and MPI, at 85 percent, 68 percent and 0.58 respectively. The other sub-regions with high incidences of poverty are Acholi (64 percent), West Nile (59 percent), Lango (57 percent), and Teso (56 percent). The least incidence of poverty was reported in Kampala (0.4 percent), Buganda South (18 percent) and Buganda North (30 percent).

Based on individual indicators, at the national level, the highest deprivations are in access to improved toilet facilities (76 percent), housing materials (65 percent), electricity (65 percent), asset ownership (46 percent) and overcrowding (45 percent). The lowest deprivation rates were recorded in access to health services (14 percent).

At the sub-regional level, Karamoja has the highest deprivations in years of schooling, school attendance and access to toilet facilities (97 percent), housing material (93 percent), electricity (87 percent), and asset ownership (87 percent). The prevalence of child labour (56 percent) is the highest in Lango and Teso while Busoga has the highest deprivation in productive employment (36 percent).

Among the population of the multidimensional poor, at the national level, the highest deprivations are in housing materials and toilet facilities, each at 39 percent, and access to clean energy (37 percent).

At the regional level, the Northern region has the highest deprivations in almost every indicator except in water and child labour indicators. The Eastern region has the highest deprivations in productive employment (50 percent) and child labour (28 percent).

The Western region has the highest deprivation in access to water (52 percent). At the sub-regional level, Karamoja consistently has higher levels of deprivation in all indicators except for access to health services and the prevalence of child labour.


Source: Uganda Bureau of Statistics (UBOS)